Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

a biodiversity hotspot

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About Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR)

A fascinating Ecosystem of the hill ranges of Nilgiris and its surrounding environments covering a tract of over 5000 Square kilometers was constituted as Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in September 1986 under Man and Biosphere Programme. Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve is India's first and foremost biosphere reserves with a heritage, rich in flora and fauna.

Biosphere Reserve program focuses on conserving natural diversity on a long term basis and sustainable development.

The NBR is part of the Western Ghats chain of mountains of the Indian peninsula. It lies between 10° 45’N to 12° N and 76° E to 77° 15’ E with a total area of 5520 sq. km spread across the three states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Altitude within the NBR varies from 250 m to 2670 m, and the reserve encompasses a diversity of vegetation types, ranging from tropical evergreen to thorny scrub. There are six protected areas within the reserve and still larger tracts of forests that lie outside of these, known as Reserve Forests.

NBR Zones Area in sq. km Area in %
Core Zone 1240.3 22.5
Manipulation Foresty Zone 3238.7 58.6
Tourism Zone 335.0 6.1
Restoration Zone 706.4 12.8

Eco-Bits

Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.

Convention on Biological Diversity


International Year of Biodiversity